This is a chronology of all major events from 527 to 1699.
527–565 Reign of Emperor Justinian I.
527–530 First incursions by Slavic tribes from the lower Danube into Thrace.
548 Slavic tribes from Pannonia cross the Danube and ravage the central parts of the Balkan Peninsula.
From mid-6th century, forays of Slavs into the Balkan Peninsula become more frequent.
582 Avars seize Sirmium.
582–602 Reign of Emperor Maurice. Last attempts at defending the northern border of the Empire from Avar and Slav assaults.
626 Avars and Slavs lay siege to Constantinople.
634 Serbs and Croats arrive at the invitation of Emperor Heraclius (610–641) to fight as allies of Byzantium against the Avars; in return, they are allowed to settle in Illyricum.
680 Bulgarians under Khan Asparuh settle east of the Danube.
c. 780–800 Reign of Serbian Prince Višeslav.
c. 800–820 Reign of Serbian Prince Prosigoj.
c. 850 Battles with Bulgarians successfully led by Prince Vlastimir and in later years also by his sons Mutimir, Strojimir and Gojnik.
c. 820–851 Reign of Serbian Prince Vlastimir.
851–891 Reign of Serbian Prince Mutimir.
867–886 Reign of Emperor Basil I.
854 Bulgarian Khan Boris attacks Serbia. After conclusion of peace, prisoners of war exchanged at Ras, when the place is first mentioned as a settlement, fort or region.
Between 867 and 874 Conversion to Christianity of the Serbian ruling family by the ecclesiastical centers on the Adriatic coast. Serbian princes recognize the supreme power of the Emperor.
892–917 Reign of Serbian Prince Petar Gojniković.
913–959 Reign of Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos.
c. 926 Temporary occupation of Serbia, until 927, by the Bulgarian army led by Tsar Simeon.
c. 933–c. 950 Reign of Prince Časlav.
c. 950 Dubrovnik diocese elevated to archdiocese, with jurisdiction over the regions of Serbia, Travunia and Zachlumia.
1018 Following the collapse of the Bulgarian Empire, Byzantine Emperor Basil II establishes the Katepanate of Bulgaria and Theme of Serbia.
1019–1020 Byzantine Emperor Basil II designates the territorial size of the Archbishopric of Ohrid, also comprising the Bishopric of Ras.
1039–1042 Prince Vojislav seizes control of Serbia and Dioclea and subsequently of Travunia and Zachlumia.
1064 Hungarians seize Byzantine Belgrade.
1072 Aborted uprising against Byzantine rule in the theme of Bulgaria. The rebels proclaim Bodin, son of Prince Mihailo of Dioclea, Tsar of Bulgaria.
1077 King Mihailo of Dioclea seeks the papal flag from Pope Gregory VII.
c. 1085 King Bodin of Dioclea seizes the region of Ras and appoints Vukan and Marko to govern it.
1089 Diocese of Bar elevated to archdiocese.
1094 Meeting of Emperor Alexios Komnenos and Ras Župan Vukan.
1096 The Crusader army passes through the territory of present-day Serbia, taking the military route from Belgrade, through Niš and Sofia, to Constantinople, while one part of the army makes its way along the roads towards the Adriatic coast.
1118–1143 Reign of Emperor John II Komnenos.
c. 1122 Emperor John Komnenos seizes Ras.
1127 During the Byzantine-Hungarian war, Serbs seize the fortress of Ras. Grand Župan Uroš I marries his daughter Jelena to the Hungarian heir to the throne, the future king Bela the Blind.
1129 Byzantine army seizes Ras and Grand Župan Uroš I recognizes the supreme authority of the Emperor, pledging to provide him with troops.
1143–1180 Reign of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
1147 Two large Crusader armies, led by German Emperor Konrad III and French King Louis VII, pass through Serbia, along the military road from Belgrade through Niš and Sofia to Constantinople.
1166–1196 Reign of Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja.
1172 Stefan Nemanja’s attempt to renege on his allegiance to Byzantine authority fails. Manuel I Komnenos captures the grand župan, who marches in the emperor’s triumphal procession on the streets of Constantinople.
1180–1183 Reign of Emperor Alexios II Komnenos. Following his assassination, Stefan Nemanja refuses to recognise the authority of the new emperor, Andronikos I Komnenos and begins to seize control of Byzantine territories.
1185–1195 Reign of Emperor Alexios III Angelos.
1189 During the Third Crusade, Stefan Nemanja and Friedrich Barbarossa meet at Niš and discuss forming an alliance.
1191 In a battle on the South Morava, the Serbian army is defeated by Byzantium. Nemanja returns a small number of conquered territories to the Byzantine emperor and his middle son and heir, Stefan, marries the emperor's niece Eudokia.
c. 1192 Rastko Nemanjić goes to Mount Athos, takes monastic vows and changes his name to Sava (1174–1236).
1195–1203 Reign of Emperor Alexios III Angelos.
1196 Stefan Nemanja abdicates in favour of his son Stefan, now a nephew-in-law of the Byzantine emperor and withdraws to the Monastery of Studenica as the monk Simeon, and subsequently to Mount Athos, the following year.
1198 The monks Simeon and Sava reconstruct the Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos.
1196–1227 Reign of Stefan Nemanjić.
1204 Fourth Crusade. The Crusaders seize Constantinople and divide the Byzantine Empire.
1204–1261 Empire of Nicaea. The house of Nemanjić considers it to be the successor to the old Empire.
1204–1221 Reign of Nicaean Emperor Theodore I Laskaris.
1217 Coronation of Stefan Nemanjić as the first crowned king ‘of all the Serbian and maritime lands’– by legates sent to him by Pope Honorius III.
1219 Consecration of Archimandrite Sava Nemanjić as the first archbishop ‘of all Serbian and maritime lands’ in Nicaea; the Ecumenical Patriarch and the Council in Nicaea give the Serbian Archbishopric the right to autocephaly. The Monastery of Žiča becomes the seat of the archbishop and the coronation church.
1228-1233 Reign of King Stefan Radoslav.
1221–1254 Reign of Nicaean Emperor John III Vatatzes.
1236 Archbishop Sava dies in the Bulgarian town of Trnovo; the following year his relics remains are transferred to the Monastery of Mileševa.
1243–1276 Reign of King Stefan Uroš I.
1259–1282 Reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos.
1261 Restoration of the Byzantine Empire at Constantinople.
1274 King Stefan Uroš I rejects the Union of Lyon.
1276–1282 Reign of King Stefan Dragutin.
1282–1328 Reign of Andronikos II Palaiologos.
1282 At the Council of Deževo, King Dragutin abdicates in favour of his brother Milutin and receives his own, separate lands.
1282–1321 Reign of King Stefan Uroš II Milutin.
1284 Hungarians grant Dragutin governance of northern Serbia and north-eastern Bosnia. Belgrade comes under Serbian rule for the first time.
c. 1291 Kuman-Tatar invasion of Serbia; Žiča is burned down. The seat of the Serbian Archbishopric is moved to Peć.
1298–1299 Byzantine-Serbian negotiations. Peace is concluded in 1299 and strengthened by the marriage between King Milutin and Simonida, the daughter of the emperor, Andronikos II Palaiologos. Milutin’s conquests till then, the most important among them, northern Macedonia with Skopje, are recognized in the form of a dowry.
1314 King Milutin captures, nearly blinds and exiles his son Stefan III Dečanski because of the latter’s revolt against his authority. Stefan with his sons spends nearly seven years in Constantinople. 1321-1324 Reign of King Stefan Vladislav II.
1321–1331 Reign of Stefan Uroš III Dečanski. 1322-1353 Reign of Ban Stefan II Kotromanic.
1324–1337 Administration of Serbian Archbishop Danilo II.
1328–1341 Reign of Andronikos III Palaiologos.
1330 Battle of Velbuzhd – victory of the Serbian army led by Stefan III Dečanski over Bulgarian Tsar Michael. Stefan Dušan, the young king, demonstrates great courage in battle.
1331–1355 Reign of King Stefan Dušan.
1334 King Dušan conquers regions in central Macedonia, including Ohrid and Prilep.
1341–1354 Civil war in Byzantium, between the regents of the under-aged John V Palaiologos, and John Kantakouzenos, who proclaims himself emperor and protector of the Palaiologoi.
1341–1391 Reign of John V Palaiologos.
1342 Alliance between John Kantakouzenos and King Dušan. The king’s conquests in south-western Macedonia and northern Epiros.
1343 Alliance of regents with King Stefan Dušan, who, from that time, in his traditional title of ruler ‘of all the Serbian and maritime lands’ adds ‘of the Greek lands’.
1345 King Dušan seizes control of Serres, south-eastern Macedonia and Mount Athos
End of 1345 /beginning of 1346 King Dušan proclaims himself as the emperor of Serbia and part of the Byzantine Empire; he most often uses the title ‘vasilevs and avtokrator of Serbia and Romania’ (in Greek) and ‘emperor of the Serbs and Greeks’ (in the Serbian language).
1346 Imperial coronation of Stefan Dušan in Skopje. The Serbian Church is elevated to the status of a patriarchate and Archbishop Joanikije is consecrated as the first Serbian patriarch.
1347–1354 Reign of John V Kantakouzenos.
1347 Emperor Dušan takes control of Epiros.
1348 Emperor Dušan takes control of Thessaly.
1349 Dušan’s Code proclaimed at a state assembly in Skopje. (The Code is later amended and proclaimed at an assembly in Serres in 1354).
1352 Constantinopolitan Patriarch Kallistos and the Synod pronounce an anathema against Emperor Dušan and Patriarch Joanikije and the Serbian bishops (the so-called Kallistos’ Anathema) because of Dušan’s coronation as Byzantine Emperor and the raising of
the Serbian Church to the status of a patriarchate.
1352 The Battle at Demotika, in which John Kantakouzenos and the Turks defeat the supporters of Emperor John V Palaiologos, the Serbs and the Bulgarians.
1354 Turks seize the city of Gallipoli, and establish their first stronghold in Europe.
1355 Emperor Dušan dies of unknown causes. The dissolution of his state soon leads to an epoch of internecine conflict among the numerous regional overlords.
1355–1371 Reign of Emperor Stefan Uroš V.
1365 Vukašin Mrnjavčević receives the title of king and becomes the co-ruler of Emperor Uroš V until 1371.
1371 Battle of the Maritsa; King Vukašin and Despot Uglješa Mrnjavčević are killed. Vukašin’s son Marko, then the ‘young king’ gains the title of king. With the death of Emperor Uroš V, the male line of the Nemanjić family is extinguished. 1371-1395 Rule of District of Branković by Nobleman Vuk Branković.
1372–1389 Reign of Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović.
1375 Reconciliation of the Serbian and the Byzantine churches. The Ecumenical Patriarchate gave absolution Dušan, Uroš, Joanikije and the bishops; the Peć archbishop’s title of patriarch is recognized in internal communication, and Dušan’s title of the Emperor of Serbia is posthumously recognized.
1376–1379 Reign of Andronikos IV Palaiologos.
1377 The Bosnian ban Tvrtko I Kotromanić is crowned as the king of the Serbs, Bosnia, the Pomorje (maritime) and western lands. 1385-1403 Rule of Zeta by Nobleman Djuradj II Balsic Stracimirovic
1389 The Battle of Kosovo; death of Prince Lazar and Sultan Murad.
1391–1425 Reign of Manuel II Palaiologos.
1395 The Battle at Rovine; King Marko and Despot Konstantin Dejanović, the vassal of the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid, are killed.
1402 The Battle of Angora, in which Stefan Lazarević fights as the vassal of Sultan Beyazid. On his return from the battlefield, in Constantinople the Byzantine emperor awards him the highest title, that of ‘despot’.
1402–1427 Reign of Despot Stefan Lazarević. 1402-1412 Rule of Kosovo by Djuradj and Lazar Brankovic.
1403–1404 Belgrade becomes the capital of the Serbian state (till 1427). 1404-1408 Reign of King Stefan Tvrtko II Kotromanic.
1408 Despot Stefan Lazarević is awarded the title of Knight of the Order of the Dragon, established by Hungarian King Szigismund. 1421-1443 Another reign of King Stefan Tvrtko II Kotromanic.
1425–1448 Reign of John VIII Palaiologos. 1427-1456 Reign of Despot Djuradj Brankovic.
1428–1430 The building of Smederevo, the new capital of the Serbian state.
1439 Despot Djuradj rejects the Florentine Union. Smederevo falls for the first time.
1440 First Ottoman siege of Belgrade (ruled by Hungary).
1449–1453 Reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos.
1453 May 29th Turks seize Constantinople. Sultan Mehmed II makes a ceremonial entry into the city, which becomes the capital of the Ottoman Empire – Istanbul.
1455 Turks seize Novo Brdo.
1456 Second Ottoman siege of Belgrade (ruled by Hungary). 1456-1458 Reign of Despot Lazar Djurdjevic Brankovic.
1459 Smederevo falls to the Turks, and the end of the Serbian medieval state. 1459-1463 Reign of King Stefan Tomasevic Kotromanic.
1463 Turks seize control of Bosnia.
1471 Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus awards Vuk Branković the title of despot. The restored despotate in Srem becomes a kind of military frontier between the Christian and Ottoman worlds.
1486 Djordje Branković appointed despot in Srem.
1490 Djuradj Crnojević becomes the Lord of Zeta.
1502 With the death of Despot Jovan, the male line of the house of Branković is extinguished.
Early 16th century Having taken monastic vows, Djordje Branković, now the monk Maksim, becomes the Metropolitan of Belgrade.
1520–1566 Reign of Turkish Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
1521 A major Turkish offensive. Belgrade seized along with other cities and part of the Serbian population is carried away to Istanbul.
1526 The Battle of Mohacs. Following the defeat of Hungary and the death of King Vladislaus, the Turks establish a stronghold in Central Europe.
1529 Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent’s first campaign against Vienna. In order to put up a front against the Turks, Serbs are settled along the Austrian - Turkish border.
1541 Hungary falls to the Turks.
1557 The Patriarchate of Peć restored.
1592 The fall of the city of Bihać to the Turks marks the end of Turkish conquests in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia.
1594 As a result of an uprising against the Turks in the Banat, Sinan-pasha has the relics of Saint Sava transferred from the Mileševa monastery and burned in Belgrade.
1595–1610 Intensive settling of Serbs in Slavonia and Croatia. The Military Frontier created.
1614–1647 Administration of the Serbian Patriarch Pajsije.
1630 Austrian Emperor Ferdinand II passes the Statutes, which provide for the special status of the Serbs living in the territory of the Military Frontier.
1683 Aborted Turkish siege of Vienna.
1683–1699 The Great (Viennese) War waged against the Turks by the Holy League – an alliance of Austria, the Roman Curia, Poland and Venice – is of crucial importance for the history of the Serbs.
1689 After the withdrawal of the Austrian army from Skopje and its defeat at Kačanik, the Turks launch a counteroffensive, followed by retaliation and devastation. The majority of the Serbian population, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević, withdraw to the territories north of the Sava and Danube rivers, which become part of the Austrian Empire after the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. First Great Migration came as a result of the Habsburg retreat and Ottoman reoccupation of southern Serbian regions, which were temporarily held by the Habsburgs between 1688 and 1690.
Copyright © 2019